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Corporate governance

1. The directors' report on corporate governance

The directors continue to be committed to maintaining high standards of corporate governance, which they see as fundamental to discharging their stewardship responsibilities. The board strives to provide the right leadership, strategic oversight and control environment to produce and sustain the delivery of value to all of the company's shareholders, the majority of whom are resident in the USA, South Africa and the UK. The board applies integrity, principles of good governance and accountability throughout its activities and each director brings independence of character and judgement to the role. All of the members of the board are individually and collectively aware of their responsibilities to the company's stakeholders.

The principal governance rules applying to UK companies listed on the London Stock Exchange are currently contained in the Combined Code on Corporate Governance adopted by the Financial Reporting Council in July 2003 (the Combined Code).

This report describes the board's approach to corporate governance and explains how it applies the Combined Code.

2. Application of the Combined Code

The board applied the principles and provisions of the Combined Code throughout the year ended 31 March 2007, except in the following respects (with items (a) to (c) being dealt with more fully in Section 3 below):

  • at least half the board, excluding the Chairman, were not independent for the purposes of the Combined Code
  • the audit committee did not consist solely of independent directors, as the committee included Ms De Lisi, an Altria nominee, who was not independent for the purposes of the Combined Code
  • the chairman of the nomination committee, although considered by the board to be independent in character and judgement, was not independent for the purposes of the Combined Code
  • two directors were not able to attend the 2006 Annual General Meeting due to prior commitments

The board has taken steps to redress the balance of the independent non-executive directors of the board through the recruitment of Ms Doherty, as an independent non-executive director, with effect from 1 April 2006, and expects the independence of the board to be strengthened further through the recruitment of an additional independent non-executive director in the coming year.

3. Board of directors: composition and independence

The board consists of the Chairman (Mr Kahn); six independent non-executive directors (including Lord Fellowes, the Senior Independent Director); five non-executive directors who are not considered to be independent; and two executive directors (Mr Mackay, the Chief Executive, and Mr Wyman, the Chief Financial Officer). Biographical information concerning each of the directors is set out in the Directors section.

The size and certain aspects of the composition of the board and of the audit, nomination and corporate accountability and risk assurance committees are determined primarily by the terms of our relationship agreement with Altria Group, Inc. (which was originally approved by shareholders in 2002 as part of the Miller transaction, and was amended, with shareholders' approval, in 2005 as part of the Bavaria Group transaction), and by the terms of our relationship agreement with BevCo LLC (a holding company of the Santo Domingo Group), which was approved by shareholders in 2005 as part of the Bavaria transaction.

The agreement with Altria limits the size of the board to a maximum of 15 directors, of whom no more than two are to be executive directors, up to three are to be non-executive directors nominated by Altria, up to two are to be non-executive directors nominated by BevCo, and up to eight are to be non-executive directors appointed by the board. The agreement with BevCo allows BevCo to nominate up to two non-executive directors for appointment to the board.

Altria and BevCo each have the right under their respective agreements to nominate one director for appointment to the nomination committee (although neither has exercised their right). BevCo has the right to nominate one director for appointment to the corporate accountability and risk assurance committee (CARAC) (although it has not exercised this right), and Altria has the right to nominate one director for appointment to the audit committee (which it has exercised).

Ms De Lisi, who was nominated for appointment to the board and the audit committee by Altria, stepped down from the board on 30 April 2007, following her retirement from Altria. Altria nominated Mr Dinyar Devitre to replace Ms De Lisi. Mr Devitre is Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Altria and joined the board as a non-executive director and a member of the audit committee with effect from 16 May 2007.

The board considers six directors – Ms Doherty, Lord Fellowes, Mr Morland, Mr Manser, Mr Manzoni and Mr Ramaphosa – to be independent for the purposes of the Combined Code. Ms Doherty was appointed to the board with effect from 1 April 2006.

The board considers six non-executive directors (including the Chairman) not to be independent for the purposes of the Combined Code: Mr Bible and Ms De Lisi, and her replacement, Mr Devitre, as they are nominees of Altria, the company's largest shareholder; Mr Santo Domingo Dávila and Mr Pérez Dávila, as they are nominees of the Santo Domingo Group, the company's second largest shareholder; Lord Renwick of Clifton, because of his position with JPMorgan Cazenove, an investment bank which has in the past three years had a material relationship with the company; and the Chairman, Mr Kahn, who is a former chief executive of the company and has served continuously on the board, or on the board of the company's predecessor, since 1981 (although he has been a director of the company only since 1999), and, as Chairman, is deemed under the Combined Code not to be independent.

For ease of reference, directors' independence status for Combined Code purposes is indicated in the table below.

The board continues to believe that its overall composition remains appropriate, having regard in particular to the independence of character and integrity of all of its directors, and the experience and skills which they bring to their duties. The board considers that the composition of the audit committee remains appropriate, given Altria's interest as the company's largest single shareholder, and is satisfied that, having regard to the terms of the relationship agreement between the company and Altria, and to the experience and background in financial matters of both Ms De Lisi and her replacement as Altria's nominee to the audit committee, Mr Devitre, the independence and effectiveness of the audit committee in discharging its functions in terms of the Combined Code continue to be considerably enhanced and not compromised. Lastly, the board considers that Lord Renwick's experience and independence of character and judgment continue to qualify him extremely well to chair the deliberations of the nomination committee in assessing potential candidates for nomination to the board. Lord Renwick will be retiring from the board at the annual general meeting in July 2008, having by then served nine years on the board.

4. How the board operates

4.1 Board meetings and attendance

The board met six times during the year, in addition to the AGM. Individual directors' attendance at board and committee meetings and at the AGM is set out in the table above. The directors nominated by Altria waived their fees during the period under review.

In the few instances where a director has not been able to attend a board or committee meeting, any comments which he or she has had arising out of the papers to be considered at that meeting, have been relayed in advance to the relevant chairman.

4.2 Operation of the board

The board sets the strategic objectives of the group, determines investment policies, agrees on performance criteria and delegates to management the detailed planning and implementation of those objectives and policies in accordance with appropriate risk parameters. The board monitors compliance with policies and achievement against objectives by holding management accountable for its activities through monthly and quarterly performance reporting and budget updates. In addition, the board receives regular presentations, on a rotational basis, from the divisional managing directors as well as from directors of key group functions (marketing, corporate affairs, human resources and legal), enabling it to explore specific issues and developments in greater detail.

Board and committee meetings are held in an atmosphere of intellectual honesty of purpose and integrity, requiring reporting of the highest standard by management and direct, robust and constructive debate among board and committee members.

4.3 Matters reserved for the board

There is a schedule of matters which are dealt with exclusively by the board. These include approval of financial statements; the group's business strategy; the annual capital expenditure plan; major capital projects; major changes to the group's management and control structure; material investments or disposals; risk management strategy; social and environmental policy; and treasury policies.

The board governs through clearly mandated board committees, accompanied by monitoring and reporting systems. Each standing board committee has specific written terms of reference issued by the board and adopted in committee. The terms of reference of the audit, remuneration and nomination committee are available on the company's website or, on request, from the Company Secretary. All committee chairmen report orally on the proceedings of their committees at the next meeting of the board, and the minutes of the meetings of all board committees are included in the papers distributed to board members in advance of the next board meeting.

4.4 The roles of executive and non-executive directors

The executive directors are responsible for proposing strategy and for making and implementing operational decisions. Non-executive directors complement the skills and experience of the executive directors, bring an independent judgement, and contribute to the formulation of strategy, policy and decision-making through their knowledge and experience of other businesses and sectors.

4.5 Information and training

The board and its committees are supplied with full and timely information, including detailed financial information, to enable directors to discharge their responsibilities. All directors have access to the advice of the Company Secretary. Independent professional advice is also available to directors in appropriate circumstances, at the company's expense, and the committees have been provided with sufficient resources to undertake their duties. None of the directors has sought independent external advice through the company. The Company Secretary is responsible for advising the board, through the Chairman, on matters of corporate governance.

Following the appointment of new directors to the board, tailored induction programmes are arranged which involve industry-specific training, and include visits to the group's businesses and meetings with senior management, as appropriate. New directors are briefed on internal controls at business unit level and are advised of the legal and other duties they have as directors of a listed company as well as on relevant company policies and governance-related matters. The company arranges for major shareholders to have the opportunity to meet new appointees. The company is also committed to the continuing development of directors in order that they may build on their expertise and develop an ever more detailed understanding of the business and the markets in which group companies operate. Members of board committees are encouraged to attend internal and external briefings and courses on aspects of their respective committee specialities, and regular updates on relevant legal, regulatory, corporate governance and technical developments are presented to committee members and, as appropriate, to the board.

4.6 Outside appointments

Non-executive directors may serve on a number of outside boards, provided they continue to demonstrate the requisite commitment to discharge effectively their duties to SABMiller plc. The nomination committee keeps the extent of directors' other interests under review to ensure that the effectiveness of the board is not compromised. The board is satisfied that the Chairman and each of the non-executive directors commits sufficient time to the fulfilment of their duties as Chairman and directors of the company, respectively.

The board believes, in principle, in the benefit of executive directors and members of the executive committee accepting non-executive directorship of other companies in order to widen their experience and knowledge for the benefit of the company. Accordingly, executive directors are permitted to accept one external non-executive board appointment, subject to the agreement of the board, and are allowed to retain any fees received from that appointment.

Mr Mackay has been a non-executive director of Reckitt Benckiser plc since 25 February 2005. Fees earned by Mr Mackay from this appointment are set out in the Directors' Remuneration Report.

4.7 Chairman, Chief Executive and Senior Independent Director

The roles of Chairman and Chief Executive are separate, with responsibilities divided between them. This separation of responsibilities is formalised in their respective letters of appointment, approved by the board. There were no significant changes to the Chairman's external commitments during the year.

The Chairman is available to consult with shareholders throughout the year, and, in the month prior to the AGM, he also invites major shareholders to meet with him to deal with any issues. The board is kept informed of the views of shareholders through regular updates from the Chairman, the Company Secretary and the executive directors, as well as through the inclusion in the board papers of relevant reports and commentaries of, and exchanges with, shareholders and investor bodies.

The Senior Independent Director is Lord Fellowes. Lord Fellowes is chairman of the corporate accountability and risk assurance committee (CARAC), and also serves on the audit, remuneration and nomination committees, and is therefore well placed to influence the governance of the company and to meet his responsibilities as Senior Independent Director. Lord Fellowes serves as an additional contact point for shareholders should they feel that their concerns are not being addressed through the normal channels. Lord Fellowes is also available to fellow non-executive directors, either individually or collectively, to discuss any matters of concern in a forum that does not include executive directors or the management of the company. In the year under review, the Chairman hosted a meeting of the non-executive directors, without the executive directors present. Lord Fellowes has, in addition, held a meeting of non-executive directors without the presence of the Chairman at which, among other things, the performance of the Chairman was discussed.

4.8 Board, committee and director performance evaluation

A formal evaluation of the performance and effectiveness of the board and of the audit, remuneration, nomination and corporate accountability and risk assurance committees is carried out each year, led by the Chairman, with input from the Senior Independent Director and in consultation with other directors and the Company Secretary. The performance of the Chief Executive is reviewed by the remuneration committee and this review is shared with the board. The performance of the Chief Financial Officer is reviewed by the Chief Executive and confirmed by the remuneration committee and the board. Each non-executive director's performance is evaluated by the Chairman, in consultation with the Senior Independent Director, who in turn consults with the executive directors and the Company Secretary. The Chairman's performance is evaluated against the same criteria by the Senior Independent Director, the non executive directors and the Company Secretary, taking into account the views of the executive directors.

In considering the contribution of individual directors for the year under review, performance was assessed against the company's selected criteria of strategy, expertise in their field, governance factors, commitment, profile, knowledge of the industry, and team contribution, culminating in an overall contribution rating. The importance of the different roles played by individual directors in bringing a balanced overall view to the board was recognised. For the year under review, the Chairman has assessed that all directors continue to make an effective contribution to the board.

In reviewing the performance of the board and its committees, the Chairman and the Senior Independent Director were aligned in their conclusion that measured against the principal duties expected of it, the board (including by extension its standing and ad hoc sub-committees) continued to operate effectively and to meet in full its obligations to support management, to monitor performance across a wide area, and to maintain its strategic oversight.

In a meeting of the Chairman, the Senior Independent Director, the committee chairmen and the Company Secretary, the results of the performance and effectiveness evaluations conducted in respect of the board, each of the directors, the Chairman, the Senior Independent Director and each of the board's four standing committees were reviewed. Regarding the board committees, each of the committee chairmen expressed his views regarding the operation of his committee against its terms of reference, and the performance and effectiveness of that committee and these views were discussed in an open and constructive manner, with recommendations arising from the discussions being brought forward to the board and the respective committees.

The results of the performance and effectiveness evaluation process were also reviewed by the Chairman, the Senior Independent Director, the Chief Executive and the Company Secretary, all of whom concluded that the board and its committees were operating effectively.

The Chairman confirms that each of Mr Manser, Mr Morland and Mr Wyman standing for re-election at this year's AGM, continues to perform effectively and to demonstrate commitment to his role. Lord Fellowes, as Senior Independent Director, confirms that Mr Kahn, also standing for re-election at this year's AGM, continues to perform effectively and to demonstrate commitment to his role. The nomination committee considered the nomination for the re-election of the Chairman and each of the non-executive directors with particular rigour, as they have served as directors for seven years (with each of Mr Kahn, Mr Manser and Mr Morland excusing himself from the consideration of his own nomination for re-election), and had been satisfied that their re-appointment as directors for a further term was warranted having regard to their continuing contribution and valuable experience on the board, which in the board's view enhanced their effectiveness and commitment to their roles.

Lord Renwick will be retiring from the board at the annual general meeting in July 2008, and it is the board's intention to recruit actively for a new independent non-executive director to be appointed within the coming year to further the progressive renewal of the non-executive membership of the board.

4.9 Retirement of directors

New directors are subject to election at the first annual general meeting following their appointment, and directors are subject to retirement and re-election by shareholders every three years. The re-appointment of non-executive directors is not automatic. The board has determined that non-executive directors who have served for nine years will be asked to stand for re-election annually provided that the board remains satisfied both with the director's performance and that nine years' continuous service does not compromise the director's continuing independence.

The board had previously determined that it would generally ask a director reaching the age of 70 years to stand for re-election annually or to retire, but as a result of changes in UK company law to reflect the principles of recent legislation which prohibits discrimination on the grounds of age, the board will not now take the age of a director into explicit account, provided that the director is otherwise continuing to perform effectively and to demonstrate commitment to his or her role.

4.10 The Company Secretary

The Company Secretary acts as secretary to the board and its committees and he attended all meetings during the year under review. After 25 years of meritorious service with the group, Mr Andrew Tonkinson retired as Company Secretary on 31 July 2006. His contribution to the group had been substantial and he left with the board's appreciation and best wishes for his retirement. He was replaced by Mr John Davidson, who joined on 1 August 2006 as General Counsel and Group Company Secretary, having already had a long association with the company as external legal counsel since 1998.

5. The board’s committees and the executive committee

5.1 The executive committee

The board delegates responsibility for determining and implementing the group's business strategy and for managing the group to the Chief Executive, Mr Graham Mackay, who is supported by the executive committee (excom), which he chairs. Excom members are appointed by Mr Mackay. The other members of excom are the Chief Financial Officer, Mr Wyman; the President and Chief Executive Officer for the Americas; the divisional managing directors responsible for managing the group's regional hubs (North America, Latin America, Europe, Africa and Asia, and South Africa); the directors of key group functions (marketing, corporate affairs, and human resources); and the General Counsel and Group Company Secretary. Excom's purpose is to support the Chief Executive in carrying out the duties delegated to him by the board, and, in that context, excom co-ordinates brand and operational execution, delivers strategic plans and budgets for the board's consideration, and, through the Chief Executive, reports on these matters to the board.

Excom also ensures that regular financial reports are presented to the board, that effective internal controls are in place and functioning, and that there is an effective risk management process in operation throughout the group.

5.2 The disclosure committee

The disclosure committee consists of the Chairman, the Chief Executive, the Chief Financial Officer, a designated non-executive director (Lord Fellowes), and the Company Secretary or the Deputy Company Secretary. The function of the disclosure committee, in accordance with the group's inside information policy, is to assure compliance with the Disclosure and Transparency Rules and the Listing Rules, and to ensure that the routes of communication between excom members, the disclosure committee, the in-house legal team, the company secretarial office and investor relations are clear and provide for rapid escalation to the disclosure committee and key advisers of any decision regarding potential inside information, so that the company is able to comply fully with its continuing obligations under the Disclosure and Transparency Rules and the Listing Rules.

5.3 The audit committee

During the year under review, the audit committee was chaired by Mr Manser, who has been chairman of the committee since May 2002. Mr Manser qualified as a chartered accountant in 1964 and was made a Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in 1976. Further biographical information concerning Mr Manser is set out in the Directors section.

Lord Fellowes, Mr Morland, Ms De Lisi and Ms Doherty served on the committee throughout the year. Mr Morland has been a member of the committee from its first meeting on 13 April 1999. Lord Fellowes was appointed to the committee on 1 June 2001, Ms De Lisi was appointed on 4 September 2002 and Ms Doherty was appointed on 1 April 2006. The chairman has recent and relevant financial experience, as did Ms De Lisi, who holds US accounting qualifications and has experience in treasury, finance and merger and acquisition transactions, and as does Ms Doherty, in light of her experience as Group International Finance Director of Tesco PLC. Mr Devitre, Ms De Lisi's replacement as Altria's nominee to the audit committee following her retirement on 30 April 2007, similarly has recent and relevant financial experience as chief financial officer of Altria, a position which he currently holds.

The committee met four times during the year. The external auditors, the Chief Executive, the Chief Financial Officer and the Chief Internal Auditor attended each meeting by invitation. Other members of the management team attended as required.

Under its terms of reference, the committee's key duties include:

  • to review, and challenge where necessary, the annual financial statements and interim and preliminary announcements before their submission to the board for approval
  • to examine and review the internal control environment and risk management systems within the group and review the group's statement on internal control systems prior to endorsement by the board, to review the independence, objectivity and effectiveness of the external audit process
  • to make recommendations to the board regarding the appointment, re-appointment and removal of the external auditors and to approve and recommend to the board the remuneration and terms of engagement of the external auditors
  • to review annually the effectiveness of the internal audit function throughout the group, with particular focus on the charter, annual work plans, activities, staffing, organisational and reporting structure and status of the function
  • to review the effectiveness of the system for monitoring compliance with laws and regulations (including the group's bi-annual letters of representation) and the results of management's investigation and follow-up (including disciplinary action) of any instances of non-compliance


The audit committee reports its activities and makes recommendations to the board. During the year, the audit committee discharged its responsibilities as they are defined in the committee's terms of reference, and has been engaged in ensuring that appropriate standards of governance, reporting and compliance are being met. It has also advised the board on issues relating to the application of accounting standards as they relate to published financial information and monitored the further progress which has been made during the year in reviewing and upgrading internal controls in the major business entities across the group, positioning the group to achieve substantive compliance with Sarbanes-Oxley standards in due course (although the company is not an SEC registrant, and is not required to comply with Sarbanes-Oxley standards).

The Chief Internal Auditor has direct access to the audit committee, primarily through its chairman. The audit committee has access to subsidiary internal audit leadership. The reports of the divisional audit committees are also available to the audit committee.

During the year, the committee met with the external auditors and with the Chief Internal Auditor without management being present.

In addition to the review of its performance, terms of reference and effectiveness led by the Chairman of the board, the committee critically reviewed its own performance during the year by means of a questionnaire which each member of the committee completed independently. The committee chairman then reviewed the responses and conducted one-to-one discussions with members of the committee where he felt it was necessary. The results of the self-assessment and any action plans arising were then reported to the board after discussion with the Chairman of the board.

5.4 The nomination committee

During the year the nomination committee was chaired by Lord Renwick. The other members of the committee were Mr Kahn, Lord Fellowes, Mr Morland, and Mr Manser. During the year under review, neither Altria nor BevCo exercised its right to request that one of its nominated directors be appointed as a member of the nomination committee.

The committee is empowered to consider the composition of the board and its committees. It is asked to consider the retirement, appointment and replacement of directors, and is required to make appropriate recommendations to the board.

The nomination committee has continued to evaluate the balance of skills, knowledge and experience of the board. The committee has retained consultants to assist in the recruitment of a new independent non-executive director to be appointed within the coming year as part of the continuing process of progressive renewal of board membership in order to combine the benefits of stability with continued reinvigoration and challenge from new members. Appropriate succession plans for the executive directors and senior management were also kept under review.

Where non-executive vacancies arise, the committee uses the services of external consultants in order to identify suitable candidates for the board to consider. Candidates are short-listed for consideration by the nomination committee on the basis of their relevant corporate or professional skills and experience. In accordance with the terms of the relationship agreement with Altria, the only executive directors appointed to the board are the Chief Executive and the Chief Financial Officer.

5.5 The remuneration committee

The committee consists entirely of independent directors: Mr Morland (Chairman), Lord Fellowes, Mr Manzoni and Mr Manser.

The committee is empowered by the board to set short, medium and long-term remuneration for the executive directors. More generally, the committee is responsible for the assessment and approval of a broad remuneration strategy for the group and for the operation of the company's share-based incentive plans. This includes determination of short and long-term incentives for executives across the group.

During the year the remuneration committee has implemented its strategy of ensuring that employees and executives are rewarded for their contribution to the group's operating and financial performance at levels which take account of industry, market and country benchmarks. To ensure that the executives' goals are aligned to those of the company, share incentives are considered to be critical elements of executive incentive pay. During the year, the committee engaged the services of consultants, Kepler Associates and Mercer Human Resource Consulting (Mercer). At levels below the company's executive committee, the company's management consults, among others, Hay Consulting, Ernst & Young and Towers Perrin, on a project basis. More details of the company's remuneration policy can be found in the directors' remuneration report.

5.6 The corporate accountability and risk assurance committee (CARAC)

Lord Fellowes chaired the committee throughout the year. Mr Kahn, Mr Mackay, Mr Manser, Mr Manzoni, Mr Ramaphosa and Mr Wyman served as members. Additionally, the Director of Corporate Affairs, Ms Clark, met regularly with the chairman of CARAC to discuss implementation and planning issues, and attended all meetings of the committee.

The objective of CARAC is to assist the board in the discharge of its responsibilities in relation to corporate accountability, including sustainable development, corporate social responsibility, corporate social investment and ethical commercial behaviour. More details of the committee's activities can be found in the Sustainable Development Review section of this report and in the company's separate Sustainable Development Report which is available on the company's website and, upon request, in hard copy.

During the year, CARAC focused on company-specific and industry issues which are critical to protecting the company's licence to operate.

6. Relationship with auditors

PricewaterhouseCoopers were appointed as auditors of the company on 8 February 1999, subsequently becoming PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (PwC) in 2003.

The company has in place a formal policy on auditor independence and non-audit services, with which the external auditors are required to comply, to ensure that the independence of the auditors is not impaired by the nature of non-audit work. As a reassurance, PwC confirms in a formal report to the audit committee that processes to ensure compliance with this policy are in place, and that these processes are monitored regularly. This report includes a statement that, in its opinion, PwC believes that the nature of its non-audit services has not impaired the audit of the company. Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements has a breakdown of non-audit services provided to the group by the auditors for the year under review.

The audit committee is satisfied that, for the period under review, the independence of the auditors has not been affected by the provision of non-audit services.

The committee has also implemented a formal system for the review of the effectiveness of the external auditors. This process involves the external auditors presenting to the committee their proposed audit strategy followed by the output of their initial discussions with management. At the audit committee meeting in May, the external auditors present the output of their detailed year-end work. In making its assessment of external auditor effectiveness, the committee reviews the audit engagement letters before signature by management, reviews the external auditors' summary of group and subsidiary issues and management's response to the summary, and conducts an overall review of the effectiveness of the external audit process and the external auditors. This review is facilitated by the use of templates that rate effectiveness across 18 critical criteria.

7. Relations with shareholders

During the year the company has continued to promote dialogue with its major institutional shareholders. All shareholders were again encouraged to attend the AGM, which provides shareholders with the opportunity to ask questions of the board and chairmen of all the board committees. All resolutions were put to a poll at the AGM in 2006. The voting at each meeting was conducted electronically, with the results being published on the Regulatory News Service and on the company's website, and communicated directly to the 20 largest shareholders after the meeting.

Alongside the facilities offered by the Company Secretary's department, the company maintains a dedicated investor relations function which reports to the Director of Corporate Affairs. The investor relations team builds and maintains long-term relationships with institutional investors and analysts, and, in partnership with our corporate and divisional management teams and within the scope of regulatory constraints, gives presentations on regional business outlooks and strives to ensure that these are understood across the global equity markets in subsequent one-to-one meetings with investors. Occasional business site visits are also arranged. Dialogue on socially responsible investment is handled by the Head of Sustainable Development in the corporate affairs department, who undertakes focused briefings with interested investors and stakeholders.

In addition to scheduled management-led programmes in which operating executives interact with investors and analysts, the Chairman has, independently, initiated formal contact with all shareholders (or their representatives) holding more than 1% of the issued share capital of the company. The purpose of this contact is to enable the Chairman to address any queries shareholders may have regarding the governance of the company or non-operational aspects of company strategy. It is also, more broadly, designed to give the board a greater awareness of shareholder concerns. Alongside the Chairman, the Senior Independent Director is also available to discuss issues with shareholders and views expressed will be communicated by the Chairman to the board. As part of this initiative, the Chairman offers to meet with significant shareholders in the month before the AGM specifically to deal with issues arising from the annual report and notice of AGM. All non-executive directors of the company are invited to participate in this process. Comment on the annual report is conveyed through the audit and remuneration committees and the Company Secretary to the board.

8. Risk management

System enhancements

The group's risk management system is subject to regular review to ensure full compliance with the requirements of the Combined Code and the Turnbull Guidance (2005) on internal control and is designed to deliver improved value to the operating businesses.

Risk and the board of directors

The directors are ultimately responsible for the group's risk management system and for reviewing its effectiveness. The risk management system is designed to manage, rather than eliminate, the risk of failure to achieve business objectives, and there is an ongoing process in place for identifying, assessing, managing, monitoring and reporting on the significant risks faced by individual group companies and by the group as a whole. This process has been in place for the year under review up to and including the date of approval of the annual report and accounts. Principal risks and uncertainties facing the group are described within the Strategic priorities section.

Executive committee

The executive committee (excom) has specific responsibility as the risk management committee for the system of risk management. Excom reviews the group's significant risks twice yearly, reporting to the board on material changes to these risks and the associated mitigating actions.

In accordance with Turnbull Guidance (2005), reviews on the effectiveness of the risk management system were carried out by the risk management committee in April and September 2006 and in April 2007.

Enterprise-wide risk management

The excom views the careful and appropriate management of risk as a key management role. Managing business risk to deliver opportunities is a key element of all our business activities. This is undertaken using a practical and flexible framework which provides a consistent and sustained method of implementing the company's values. The business risks, which may be strategic, operational, reputation, financial or environmental, are understood and visible. The business context determines in each situation the level of acceptable risk and controls. We continue to seek improvement in the management of risk by sharing best practice throughout the organisation.

Key features of the group's system of risk management are:

  • group statements on strategic direction, ethics and values
  • clear business objectives and business principles
  • an established risk policy
  • a continuing process for identification and evaluation of significant risks to the achievement of business objectives
  • management processes in place to mitigate the significant risks to an acceptable level
  • ongoing monitoring of significant risks and internal and external environmental factors that may change the group's risk profile
  • a regular review by the group of both the type and amount of external insurance that it buys, bearing in mind the availability of such cover, its cost and the likelihood and magnitude of the risks involved

Group internal audit provides objective assurance as to group-wide compliance with the risk management policy.

In addition to excom's twice-yearly reports to the board on key risks, there is a process of regular reporting to the board through the audit committee on the status of the risk management process.

Key annual reports include those that identify, rank, monitor and measure strategic, operational and financial risks in each division and on a group basis.

9. Internal control

The Turnbull Guidance sets out best practice on internal control for UK listed companies to assist them in assessing the application of the Combined Code's principles and compliance with the Combined Code's provisions with regard to internal control. This Guidance was updated by the Financial Reporting Council in October 2005, and the updated Guidance applies to listed companies for financial years beginning on or after 1 January 2006.

The group's systems of internal control are designed and operated to support the identification, evaluation and management of risks affecting the group and the business environment in which it operates. As such, they are subject to continuous review as circumstances change and new risks emerge.

Key features of the systems of internal control are:

  • the risk management system described in the preceding section
  • written policies and procedures within our businesses, which are detailed in policy manuals, clearly defined lines of accountability and delegation of authority, identification of key controls and comprehensive reporting and analysis against approved standards and budgets
  • group treasury operations which control and reduce exposure to interest rate, counterparty, liquidity and currency transaction risks and co-ordinate the activities of group companies in this area. Treasury policies, risk limits and monitoring procedures are reviewed regularly by the audit committee on behalf of the board
  • a group tax risk and tax operating framework which forms the basis of tax governance across the group and is implemented and managed by a group tax function, which co-ordinates and monitors tax risk and implements strategies and procedures to control this risk
  • minimisation of operating risk by striving to ensure that the appropriate infrastructure, controls, systems and people are in place throughout the businesses. Key policies employed in managing operating risk involve segregation of duties, transaction authorisation, monitoring, financial and managerial reporting
  • business resumption planning, including preventative and contingency measures, back-up capabilities and the purchase of insurance to fund the increased costs of ongoing product and service delivery under adverse conditions.

Assurance on compliance with systems of internal control and on their effectiveness is obtained through regular management reviews, reporting to the audit committee, control self-assessment, internal audit reviews and quality assurance described in section 10 below, testing of certain aspects of the internal financial control systems by the external auditors during the course of their statutory examinations and regular reports to the audit committee by the external auditors. The group's various divisional audit committees consider the results of these reviews regularly, to confirm the appropriateness and satisfactory nature of these systems, while ensuring that breakdowns involving material loss, if any, together with remedial actions, have been reported to the appropriate boards of directors. The above activities do not apply in respect of the group's associated undertakings or joint ventures.

At the half year and at the year end the divisional managing directors and finance directors of all the group's operations, and each of the group's functional directors, are required to submit formal letters of representation on controls, compliance and notification of continuing or potential operational, financial and legal risks or claims.

These letters form the subject of reports to the audit committee. These letters, including the review described above, cover all subsidiary companies but do not cover associates (except for Tsogo Sun, which does submit letters of representation) or joint ventures. Where material, group executives sit on the boards of associated companies. Directors and members of the executive committee also make annual written declarations of interests and are obliged to report without delay any potential or actual conflicts of interest which may arise.

The directors are responsible for the group's systems of internal control and for reviewing their effectiveness annually. The board has conducted a review of the effectiveness of the group's internal controls covering all material controls, including financial, operational and compliance controls and risk management systems in place throughout the year under review. Necessary actions have been, or are being, taken to remedy any significant failings or weaknesses identified from the board's review of the effectiveness of the internal control system. As part of the integration of the Bavaria Group, which became part of the group early in the second half of the previous year, significant progress has been made in embedding systems, controls and procedures within the Bavaria Group to bring them into full alignment with those in place throughout the rest of the group. The systems of internal control are designed to manage, rather than eliminate, the risk of failure to achieve business objectives and can provide reasonable, but not absolute, assurance against material misstatement or loss. In reviewing these, the board has taken into account the results of all the work carried out by internal and external auditors to audit and review the activities of the group.

The board, with advice from the audit committee, has completed its annual review of the effectiveness of the system of internal control for the period since 1 April 2006 in accordance with the updated Turnbull Guidance, and is satisfied that this system is in accordance with that Guidance and that it has been in place throughout the year under review and up to the date of this report.

10. Internal audit

Internal audit functions operated in all of the group's principal business units in the period under review, reporting to local senior finance management with direct access to local audit committees and the Chief Internal Auditor. Under the global internal audit structure, implemented in 2004, the local and regional audit functions have direct interface with the group internal audit function which reports directly to the Chief Financial Officer and has direct access to the audit committee through the Chief Internal Auditor. The internal audit activities are performed either by teams of appropriate, qualified and experienced employees, or through the engagement of external practitioners upon specified and agreed terms with equivalent access. The Chief Internal Auditor prepares formal reports for each audit committee meeting as to the consolidated activities and findings of the global internal audit function.

Following the implementation of a centrally co-ordinated functional structure and a standardised group-wide internal audit methodology in 2004, a formal quality assurance programme has been introduced within the global function. Accordingly, detailed quality review assessments are performed with regard to the local and regional internal audit teams, to ensure compliance with quality and performance measures defined under the internal global functional effectiveness matrix tool. This process provides a basis for an annual review of the effectiveness of the global internal audit function, and results in a formal report (prepared by the Chief Internal Auditor) to the audit committee to support the committee's formal annual assessment of the effectiveness of internal audit. In addition, periodic reviews by independent external consultants are utilised when deemed necessary by the audit committee.

The audit committee has satisfied itself that adequate, objective internal audit assurance standards and procedures exist within the group, and that continuous improvement in the quality and objectivity of the global internal audit function is a primary ongoing objective of the department.

11. Whistleblowing measures

All employees in most subsidiaries within the group have the opportunity to make confidential disclosures about suspected impropriety and wrongdoing. The Company Secretary, in consultation with the Chief Internal Auditor, decides on the appropriate method and level of investigation. The audit committee is notified of all disclosures made and receives reports on the results of all investigations and actions taken. The audit committee has the power to request further information, conduct its own inquiries, or order additional action as it sees fit.

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