Adjusted earnings are calculated by adjusting headline earnings for the amortisation of intangible assets (excluding software), integration and restructuring costs, the fair value movements in relation to capital items for which hedge accounting cannot be applied and other items which have been treated as exceptional but not included above or as headline earnings adjustments together with the share of joint ventures’ and associates’ adjustments for similar items. The tax and minority interests in respect of these items are also adjusted.
Adjusted net finance costs
This comprises net finance costs excluding fair value movements in relation to capital items for which hedge accounting cannot be applied and any exceptional finance charges or income.
Adjusted profit before tax
This comprises EBITA less adjusted net finance costs and less the group’s share of associates’ and joint ventures’ net finance costs on a similar basis.
Constant currency results have been determined by translating the local currency denominated results for the year ended 31 March at the exchange rates for the comparable period in the prior year.
This comprises operating profit before exceptional items, amortisation of intangible assets (excluding software) and includes the group’s share of associates’ and joint ventures’ operating profit on a similar basis.
EBITA margin (%)
This is calculated by expressing EBITA as a percentage of group revenue.
This comprises the net cash generated from operations before working capital movements.
EBITDA margin (%)
This is calculated by expressing EBITDA excluding cash flows related to exceptional items incurred during the year as a percentage of revenue.
Effective tax rate (%)
The effective tax rate is calculated by expressing tax before tax on exceptional items and on amortisation of intangible assets (excluding software), including the group’s share of associates’ and joint ventures’ tax on the same basis as a percentage of adjusted profit before tax.
This comprises revenue together with the group’s share of revenue from associates and joint ventures.
Headline earnings are calculated by adjusting profit for the financial period attributable to equity holders of the parent for items in accordance with the South African Circular 8/2007 entitled ‘Headline Earnings’. Such items include impairments of non-current assets and profits or losses on disposals of non-current assets and their related tax and minority interests. This also includes the group’s share of associates’ and joint ventures’ adjustments on the same basis.
This is the ratio of EBITDA plus dividends received from joint ventures to adjusted net finance costs.
This comprises gross debt (including borrowings, borrowings-related derivative financial instruments, overdrafts and finance leases) net of cash and cash equivalents (excluding overdrafts).
Organic results and volumes exclude the first 12 months’ results and volumes relating to acquisitions and the last 12 months results’ and volumes relating to disposals.
Total Shareholder Return (TSR)
TSR is the measure of the returns that a company has provided for its shareholders, reflecting share price movements and assuming reinvestment of dividends.
In the determination and disclosure of sales volumes, the group aggregates 100% of the volumes of all consolidated subsidiaries and its equity accounted percentage of all associates’ and joint ventures’ volumes. Contract brewing volumes are excluded from volumes although revenue from contract brewing is included within revenue. Volumes exclude intra-group sales volumes. This measure of volumes is used in the segmental analyses as it more closely aligns with the consolidated group revenue and EBITA disclosures.
In the determination and disclosure of aggregated sales volumes, the group aggregates 100% of the volumes of all consolidated subsidiaries, associated companies and joint ventures. Contract brewing volumes are excluded from aggregated volumes although revenue from contract brewing is included within revenue. Aggregated volumes exclude intra-group sales volumes.
The Combined Code on Corporate Governance, published by the UK Financial Reporting Council.
Taking an index where the bulk of the market volume is at a price index of 100, the economy sector would index at around 85. Normally, all brands in this segment will be local brands. In the beer market, the economy segment is usually dominated by local brands.
International brewers index
The index of International brewers charts the share price progression of an index of the company’s closest peers in the global brewing industry – Anheuser-Busch InBev (Anheuser-Busch and InBev included separately, until the acquisition of Anheuser-Busch by InBev on 17 November 2008), Carlsberg, Heineken and Molson Coors, relative to 1 April 2004. The index is weighted relative to the market capitalisation of the brewers as at 1 April 2004.
Mainstream represents the group of brands that constitute the bulk of the market volume at a price index of 100. Key to this group is the leading volume brand in any market. Mainstream brands tend to be local.
PET is short for polyethylene terephthalate, a form of plastic which is used for bottling alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks.
Premium segment (worthmore segment in the USA)
The premium segment comprises both local and international brands. They are brands which consumers perceive to offer greater value than mainstream brands and for which they are willing to pay a premium. Mainstream brands are priced at about a price index of 100 and premium brands index at around 120 and above. As a result, the premium segment, although small in volume terms, often generates a disproportionate level of profit, when compared to the mainstream and economy segments.
STRATE stands for Share Transactions Totally Electronic and is an unlisted company owned by JSE Limited and Central Securities Depository Participants (CSDP) and exists to allow share transactions in South Africa to be settled electronically.